The Principality of Monaco, Monaco or the short form, is a town and a country of Western Europe the same name occupying the same area as the State itself (making it a city-state) . Ensconced in the French territory, between the cities of Cap d'Ail, Beausoleil, La Turbie and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, Monaco is located on the Mediterranean Sea, along the French Riviera, about twenty kilometers east of Nice. Independent since 1297, this constitutional monarchy ruled since 2005 by the Sovereign Prince Albert II of Monaco in the Grimaldi dynasty that is, the mother of Rainier III, the oldest ruling dynasty in the world (since 1297).
Today this state occupies an area of ''2 km2  making it the second smallest independent state in the world (the first being the Vatican). At the last census in 2008, Monaco had 32 796 inhabitants.  With 16 398 inhabitants per km2, it is the country's most densely populated in the world.
Almost entirely urbanized, the Principality of Monaco enjoys a particularly mild Mediterranean climate and has many luxury hotel facilities. Many international events (Grand Prix Formula 1, Masters of Monte Carlo Rally Monte Carlo) are conducted in addition to all these attractions throughout the year (Casino de Monte-Carlo, Oceanographic Museum, Palace princely), making it a popular destination for tourists.